Posts Tagged ‘saddle pads’

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You’ve been putting off replacing your worn and torn saddle pad, but the time has come to retire the tired old pad, relegating it perhaps to a new life as a bed for your farm dog. You pick up a copy of the latest horse supply catalog and are immediately confused and overwhelmed by the many different choices of saddle pads now available. You want to purchase the pad best suited for your horse; but it is hard to decide which type of pad is preferable. What material should you choose? What shape? You toss the catalog back onto the table and walk away aggravated and perplexed. It shouldn’t be this hard!

Before making that purchase, it is good to understand the purpose of the saddle pad: to provide your horse comfort and cushioning for the saddle, to prevent dirt, sweat, or other debris to accumulate on your horse’s back, and to remove moisture and heat. The conformation of your horse’s back also comes into play when selecting the best pad.

One general rule to always remember: No saddle pad is going to correct the problems and pain caused by an ill-fitting saddle. Always make sure your saddle properly fits your horse. Some folks will add an extra pad under the saddle, thinking this will make the saddle fit better; however, this only compounds the problem much like wearing an extra sock in an already too-tight shoe. Keep in mind that at first a new pad under an ill-fitting saddle will appear to work well; however, it does not take long for the pressure points to return and cause soreness in your horse’s back.

Saddle pads are constructed from several different materials. The most common saddle pad, and least expensive, is a heavy cloth pad with a fleece bottom. The fleece may be synthetic (man-made) or natural (wool). Fleece pads are superb for wicking away moisture. Both synthetic and wool fleece pads need to be cleaned regularly to keep dirt and sweat from accumulating within the fibers and breaking the material down. Synthetic fleece normally has a longer service life than wool fleece pads.

One step up from the fleece pad is the felt (compressed wool) pad. Felt provides good shock absorption, as well as the moisture wicking ability of the wool. Felt pads keep your horse’s back cool and dry as it has a sponge effect of pulling sweat into the pad. Felt pads clean up a little easier than fleece pads.

In recent years, saddle pad technology has introduced neoprene, foam, and gel saddle pads. These pads can be a little pricey, but they do have some good attributes, such as shock absorption and letting air move easily to cool your horse’s back. Easy cleaning and stability are an added bonus. These pads can be hosed off with water and allowed to dry. Saddles do not slip easily when they rest on these pads. Gel pads provide extra shock absorption for your horse. Sometimes the new technology couples with the old, and you can find neoprene or foam pads with fleece or felt.

The conformation of your horse’s back will define the best shape a saddle pad should have to provide an ideal fit. If your horse has low or mutton-chopped withers, choose a normal saddle pad, one without build-ups or inserts. A round-skirted, contoured pad would best fit a horse with a short back and high withers. If your horse has a short back, choose a round-skirted saddle pad. A high-withered, long-backed horse would be more comfortable with a built-up, contoured or cut-out pad, which are all designed to relieve pressure in the withers area.

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See http://www.barnworld.com for more information about choosing the right saddle saddle pad, saddle pads, and wool saddle pads.

by Erica Larson | thehorse.com

“Why does he do that?” “What is she so scared of … there’s nothing there!” Most—if not all—horse owners have been there and asked those questions. Even though we don’t always understand equine behavior, there’s got to be a reason behind it, right? Absolutely. Horses’ behaviors date back to equine evolution, and horse owners greatly benefit from an understanding what goes on in a horse’s brain, according to one veterinarian. At the 2012 Western Veterinary Conference, held Feb. 19-23 in Las Vegas, Nev., Robert Miller, DVM, a former equine practitioner from Thousand Oaks, Calif., relayed the top 10 things horse owners, caretakers, and riders should understand about how the equine mind functions.

“There are 10 genetically predetermined behavioral qualities unique to the horse that have been established by natural selection over the 50 million-year period during which the horse evolved,” Miller began. “Failure to understand these qualities makes it impossible to have optimum communication with horses.”

1. Flight—”We tend to attribute the flightiness of a horse as stupidity,” Miller said, but when horses spook and run from things, it’s simply their innate instincts kicking in. He explained that unlike the majority of prey animals that depend on horns, tusks, or antlers for defense, the only mechanism horses are armed with—their “life-saving” behavior—is the ability to run. The following nine qualities, Miller said, stem from the horse’s flight response.

2. Perception—”The horse is the most perceptive of all domestic animals,” Miller said, adding that this quality allowed for the quick detection and escape from predators in the wild. He gave examples using the five senses:

  • Smell—Miller said horses have an “excellent” sense of smell.
  • Hearing—”The horse’s range of hearing is far beyond that of a human ear,” he said. Additionally, he noted, the ears swivel, giving the horse the ability to pinpoint where sounds originate. This was critical for survival in the wild.
  • Touch—”A horse’s sense of touch is extremely delicate,” Miller said, which is why ill-placed saddle pads or a single fly can cause extreme irritation. “The sense we have in our fingertips is what the horse has all over his body.”
  • Taste—Ever tried to sneak Bute or a new supplement into a horse’s feed, only to have him turn up his nose? Horses have a very tactful sense of taste. When grazing in the wild, it’s important for horses to differentiate between good grass and moldy forage.
  • Sight—The sense that varies most from ours is the horse’s eyesight. While horses’ depth perception isn’t particularly strong, other factors enable them to “see things we’re not even aware of,” Miller said. The horse’s laterally placed eyes allow for nearly 360⁰ vision, a crucial survival mechanism for the wild equid. Additionally, Miller noted the horse has superb night vision and sees in muted, pastel colors during the day. The equine focusing system is also different from humans, he said. When a human eye transitions from focusing on close-up objects to far away objects, it takes one and a half to two seconds to adjust (Miller encouraged attendees to try it—look at something close up and then look at something far away, and try to focus on how long it takes the eyes to focus). Horses, on the other hand, make the transition seamlessly. This is because different parts of the eye have different focusing capabilities. Horses use the top portion of their eyes to see up close, which is why they often lower their heads when investigating something. The lower portion of the eye sees far away, which is why the animal will raise his head when looking at something in the distance; when the horse holds his head up high, he’s considered to be in the flight position.

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3. Reaction time—Miller said horses might have the fastest reaction time of any domestic animal, which likely results from evolving with flight as their main defense mechanism. To illustrate the concept, Miller showed video clips of Portuguese bull fighting and cutting horses working cattle, in which attendees could clearly visualize that although the bovines made the first move, the horse always countered and arrived at the destination first. While a fast reaction time is quite useful for escaping predators, it can also be dangerous for humans working around horses. “It’s important that we, who make our living with horses, expect their reaction time,” Miller stressed. “If (a horse) really wants to strike or kick you, you can’t get out of the way fast enough.”

4. Desensitization—Although it’s equine nature to be flighty and sometimes timid, Miller said that horses appear to be desensitized faster than any other domestic animal. “If an animal depends on flight to stay alive, and if they couldn’t rapidly desensitize to things that aren’t really frightening or dangerous, they’d never stop running,” he explained. As long as the horse learns the frightening stimulus doesn’t actually hurt them, the majority will become desensitized, he said.

5. Learning—Miller believes “the horse is the fastest learner of all domestic animals—including children. If you stay alive by running away, you better learn fast.”

6. Memory—The horse’s memory is infallible, Miller said. One of the best memories in the animal kingdom, he noted, horses are second only to the elephant in this department.

7. Dominance—Equine dominance is not based on brute strength, Miller explained, which is why humans can become dominant figures in a horse’s mind. He related an example of a horse herd in which an older mare is typically the boss. While these mares generally aren’t in poor physical condition, they’re certainly not the strongest herd member physically.

8. Movement control—What horses do look for in a dominant figure is movement control. Matriarch mares, for instance, assert their dominance by either forcing or inhibiting movement, Miller said, which allows a human to step in as a dominant figure. Miller suggested a quick way for a veterinarian to assert dominance over a horse for safer examinations and treatments: Before treatment, walk the horse in a few small circles. This forces movement and asserts dominance.

9. Body language—Unlike humans, who can express their feelings through words, horses rely on body language, Miller said. “If we are to be competent horse handlers we must be able to understand and mimic the body language of the horse,” he explained.

10. Precocial birth—Horses are born in a precocial state, meaning that shortly after birth they possess the ability to move, eat, flee, and follow, and all of their senses and neurologic functions are mature, Miller said. What does this mean for a human? Aside from providing enjoyment in watching a young foal gallop and buck excitedly around a pasture, it tells us that the horse’s critical learning period takes place shortly after parturition. Thus, Miller recommends socializing and imprinting foals in the very early stages of life.

Of course, every horse is different and should be treated as an individual. That said, having a basic understanding of why a horse functions the way he does provides equestrians with the knowledge needed to forge a strong relationship with the animal and also stay safe when working around him.

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by Nancy Zacks | thehorse.com

If you’ve ever been in the market for a new saddle pad, you know there are a myriad of types to choose from. Many horse owners search for a product that reduces the pressure on their horse’s back when working under saddle, and a team of Austrian researchers recently set out to determine what material might be best suited for the task.

Of four saddle pad materials (gel, leather, foam, and reindeer fur) tested by the Movement Science Group of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria, reindeer fur provided the best shock absorption at the walk and sitting trot, according to a study.

“Saddle fit involves individual adaptation,” said Christian Peham, head of the Movement Science Group, “It is difficult to make a general recommendation about the best material, but reindeer fur showed the best results.”

The research team tested the four commonly used saddle pad materials by placing a pressure-sensing mat under the pad used beneath a well-fitting saddle. They recorded the forces on the backs of 16 sound horses of different breeds and ages ridden on a treadmill at a walk and a sitting trot. For comparison, the same horses were tested without a saddle pad at the same gaits.

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None of the materials adversely affected saddle fit compared to no pad, the researchers noted, but the reindeer fur pad decreased forces on the back significantly when compared to forces recorded without a pad.

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Movement dynamics are crucial when evaluating materials, according to Peham. “We saw that soft materials can sometimes harden with higher impact (as in trot). “Faster motion can also affect the ability for the material to relax.”

The current study emphasizes that a well-chosen saddle pad can reduce the pressure on a horse’s back when used with a well-fit saddle. Regardless of the material, “riders should check saddle fit regularly,” said Peham.

The study, “The effects of different saddle pads on forces and pressure distribution beneath a fitting saddle,” was published in the Equine Veterinary Journal. The abstract is available online.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

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by Mike G. Easton | 5starequineproducts.com

Marketing of saddle pads has become big business. All one has to do is make a web search and you will find over 15 pages of manufacturers. Each pad company puts various marketing emphasis on their products. Emphasis ranges from comfort, fit, durability, ease of cleaning, cooling, compression protection, performance, close contact, blood flow to animal’s back and the list goes on.

Pad manufacturers “bias” their marketing labels to sell pads—bottom line! For instance, one manufacturer uses the term “wool like” on their label; another very expensive blanket/pad combination has the symbol used by the American Wool Council on the wear leather and yet close examination of the item shows it has a synthetic backed fleece, open cell foamed backed inner core and wool blend weave on top; another uses technical flattery – …two layers of air cells and ultra shock foam core producing lock down effect that eliminates slippage… Therapeutic is another big leader such as open cell medical memory foam, medical felt and … increase oxygen, energy, and muscle recovery. And all of the claims of being 100% wool only cloud the marketing hype.

Another glaring example of manufacturers of foam pads contradicting themselves is when they were interviewed for an article for Equestrian Retailer, July 2004, Vol. 7, No. 2. They give their bias on the benefits of neoprene products and then later state, “Manufacturers advise riders and trainers not to leave neoprene pads on horses for long periods of time because they build heat and moisture.” And this makes no difference whether the pad is perforated or waffled. It is impossible to channel air as they like to make one believe.
You can see that with catchy terms a saddle pad purchaser can easily be misled when trying to find the best compression protection, wicking and durability possible for their horse. Hopefully we can help you to understand some of the physical properties of pad materials simply by looking and feeling the pads surface and knowing where to find correct information.

Saddle Fit

Before addressing the aspects of saddle pad materials one cannot over emphasize the importance of good saddle fit. If the saddle does not fit correctly soring will take place. Additional padding is only a temporary fix and will not solve the problem. In most instances if you are having problems with a pad staying in place you have to take a hard look at how the tree in your saddle fits the conformation of your horse. Because of expense, it is not practical to be changing saddles all the time so it is then necessary to find correct pad material that will stay in place, provide maximized compression protection and cooling.

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Saddle Pad History

Historically, saddle pads ranged from animal hides, to woven animal hair, to crude felts, to exotic linens, to woven blankets and today’s modern industrial materials. Old timers remember the hair, felts and blankets. Not much thought was given to saddle fit and if a horse became sore many riders added another layer and cinched a little tighter. It is important to remember that when ranchers used horses on a regular basis the horses were changed often, so soring was never a major concern.

It appears that the 1960’s began the era of synthetics. Dr. Robert Miller, DVM and noted author commented that early in his California practice in the 60’s, some of his clients started complaining about white spots and wither soring which had not occurred previously. Then one day he happened to spot an advertisement in a magazine for foam pads. Further investigation revealed his clients had switched to the new pads. Most of the early foams were closed cell mattress or seating type materials never intended for compression protection with severe impact.

It has not been until the last 20 years and the desire for perfection in saddle fit to enhance performance, that much thought was given to saddle pads. But as popularity of recreational riding and showing gained momentum more effort was put into the study of saddle fit and related accessories. Dr. Joyce Harman, DVM, an equine specialist, has spent the last fifteen years studying saddle fit. Dr. Harman wanted to know how saddle fit affected performance and what constituted good fit. However, as she studied saddle fit she realized the need to also assess what impact pad material had on saddle fit results. Her new book discusses findings with English style saddle fit and what to look for with pad materials. At some future date her findings on Western saddles will be available.

Materials

The primary materials used in saddle pads today are open and closed cell foams, synthetic felts, needled felts, pressed industrial felts, woven blankets, gel packs, synthetic cloth, and air bladders. What is interesting about all of these materials is NOT ONE of them was ever originally designed to be used as a saddle pad.

Foams are petroleum and rubber based materials designed for sound proofing and impact resistance for automotive and aerospace industry. Felts were used for bedding, bearing cushions, lubrication wicks, sound proofing and cushioning in the same industries. Gel packs and air-bladder materials were designed for severe impact blows and mild weight distributions for auto racing, mattress industry and football helmets. Within the last 15 years another material, known as Tacky Tack was developed as shelving material for the food industry. Memory foam is another product that has just recently cropped up and is nothing more than a tight-grained open cell foam with low compression rating used in the mattress industry where impact applications are limited.

Now one would think that these would provide exactly what would be needed for saddle pad materials. Maybe and maybe not, but first a more detailed description of each.

Foam pads consist of two types of materials: 1. Closed cell – cellular rubber [neoprene] and 2. Open cell – polyurethane. There is also a closed cell, cross-linked polyethylene foam, but it is seldom used in pads.

Close inspection will reveal that the closed cell foam has a very tight fine grain. Whereas, the open cell foam has small holes and a grainy look generally. The closed cell foam normally has a more elastic and smoother feel. There are of course exceptions to these descriptions, but we are generally referring to what is used in saddle pad construction.

Color is normally black, white or gray.

With either of these foams it really does not matter if you know the difference because the compression ratings are about the same. Neither has wicking ability and both trap heat. If it is open cell foam used as filler just remember that compression protection is extremely poor. Closed cell foams tend to send pressure points through to the horse’s back, but can be supportive if under a heavy saddle. Open cell foams will bottom out but do not interfere with saddle fit by being too thick.

Gel Pak Pads are simply heavy mill vinyl/plastic bladders that are filled with a non-hardening gel material. The intent behind development of this product system was to find a material base that would lessen severe impact from a sharp force. In other words it would gradually give with the impact. Evaluation of this material when used in saddle pads works fine when used for only a short time period (30 minutes). But with any movement after that period of time they will bottom out. This leaves no compression protection below any pressure points that might exist in a saddle. This happens because the gel is pushed aside.

The other major down-side to pads with gel paks is the plastic bladder as it traps heat and has zero wicking ability. These Gel Paks are normally bonded between other synthetic products. And even if they were bonded with a better grade of felt no real benefit is gained because compression protection is no better than the felt by itself and it adds unnecessary weight.

Air bladders or air cell pad material simply are different forms of creating an air mattress. They will conform to conformation of animal and saddle bars, but they are harder to keep in place because of constant ripple effect, like in an air mattress or waterbed. They will work with limited riding (30-45 minutes) but for a hard days work they trap heat. Air can have very limited compression protection because of the bottoming out effect similar to Gel Pak pads. Air also becomes quite hard under the pressure of the saddle, and though it gives an even surface the pressures are higher than most other materials. Most of these types of pads have to be bonded with some other synthetic material and those that are not are very tacky when sweaty. Manufacturers try and convince you that airflow keeps them cool under the saddle. Again this is not possible with a saddle that fits correctly.

In the felting world there are two types of felt: 1. Needled felt and 2. Pressed industrial felt. Generally most synthetic felts are needled. “Needled” simply means it is made with heat, stem and vibrating pressure from needles that lock the fibers over the top of each other. “Pressed industrial” felt is made by heat, steam and oscillating pressure that locks the wool fibers together by sticking fibers to each other. In this case fibers are able to lock to each other because of the outer surface structure of each individual fiber. It requires a separate technical article to show why this process works.

Needled felts are easy to spot. They have horizontal and vertical holes evenly spaced on both sides of the felt. Because of high concentrations of synthetic material in them they are generally shiny, slippery and not soft feeling. Their color ranges varies from black, to dark grays, to motile grays with lots of color thread showing, to white, such as medical hospital felt. Most neoprene pads with colored felt on them are 100% synthetic or needled felt with high concentrations of synthetic material and a cloth cover. Another clue is that when you see felt pads sewn around the edges or another material sewn on top, you can bet it is a synthetic or needled felt, because they will not hold together with much use without this sewing effort.

Manufacturing costs of these pads are substantially less due to cheaper costs in synthetic materials. But from the retail point of view when you compare the cost of synthetic pads there is not much price difference.

Pressed industrial felts (PIF) do not have the holes. They are softer to touch, much more supple and depending on grade have no shiny synthetic material. Color ranges are dark gray to off white in the natural state, but with the better grades of PIF one can find all other dyed color spectrums. Color normally gives you clues as to the actual virgin wool content and grade of felt. The more virgin wool in the felt, the lighter the color is. The same is true for touch. The more virgin wool content, the softer the feel will be when touching.

There are about 15 grade specification numbers utilized by the felting industry. Most saddle pad makers use an F15 grade. This F15 felt has a dark gray, almost a charcoal look. It contains 55% maximum virgin wool and 45% reworked wool content. This felt is used solely as a pad and/or bonded with one of the foams.

(Note: Reworked wool comes from yarn previously processed for some other application, normally in the garment industry, and has been blended with synthetics. Felters use it to control density, consistency in thickness and cost. The synthetics can then end up being as high as 20% in any given pad. So color is only clue a buyer has to tell whether or not the felt is really 100% wool as labeled. )
(EXCEPTION) There is a company that uses F11 and F10 grade wool felt. The F11 felt has 92% minimum virgin wool and 8% reworked content. The F11 is very light gray, very soft, smooth finish and very supple. The F10 felt which has 98% virgin wool content, and 2% reworked wool. The F10 is a crème white and very soft with a smooth finish. These felts are dyed with a vegetable based dye to come in a variety of colors red, blue, hunter green, brown, black, etc. The exceptional features of these felts make it very easy to visually tell them apart.

So what difference does it make when someone wants a wool felt pad and why would they look for a F10 or F11 felt as opposed to a F15 felt. International Felting Standards shows that the F11 felt has a compression rating of 6 psi and 200 psi tensile strength as opposed to compression rating of 2 psi and 75 psi tensile strength for the F15. Additionally, based on research from Felt Manufacturers Council of America, the higher the virgin wool content of the felt, the better the wicking ability is. So if you really want a pad with superior rating find the company with the F11 and F10 felt.

What to Look for in a Pad!

The most important of all the pad attributes to look for is compression protection and cooling. How does the purchaser know whether the manufacturers label and claims are true? Answer: They don’t without careful investigation and lots of costly trial and error in purchasing pads.

Cooling

When we look at all the research done over the years with exercise physiology and anatomy for humans and equine we know that the mechanism for cooling during activity are sweating and breathing. To prevent over heating during exertion the body must receive airflow or some means of water internally or externally for cooling to take place.

So let us apply this knowledge to saddle fit and cooling.

When a saddle is fitting correctly, the bars of the saddle tree should conform evenly to the natural conformation of the back. And there should be a flair or rocker at the front and back of the bars to allow the shoulders and loins freedom from pressure. The saddle maker then adds leather skirting to the top and a wool sheepskin or synthetic fleece material to the bottom. Very few saddles today have natural sheepskin on the underside unless it is specifically requested. Assuming this material has been fitted and placed correctly the saddle should conform to the horse’s back for a nice fit. The logical question to ask then is how can cooling take place under a saddle if it fits closely to the back?

Answer: It cannot without the support of material that will wick the sweat, which is the primary heat-carrying agent.

Common Sense Time

Closed cell foams and synthetic based materials will not wick. Try mopping up five gallons of water with a neoprene or synthetic pad. So a good question to ask oneself is, “If my saddle is fitting correctly and no air flow or water can penetrate between back and saddle, how can I cool the saddle back area with a neoprene or synthetic pad?” Answer: Not Possible! Another good question to ask is “Would I wear plastic or foam underwear or socks?” Answer: Not on your life! The argument that a sweaty back lubricates and is good for the animal is shear ignorance.

There are quite a number of manufacturers that contend their air-channels and waffle type foams cool. This is simply not true because the animal hair, skin and fat layers push into holes in the material. This can easily be seen through close examination of the back after using one of these types of pads. Again, always remember the tight fit saddle concept.

Other points to consider are that when any foam-based pad becomes wet from sweat they also become sticky or slick. When this happens the animal hair and skin is constantly being pulled or stretched creating the frictional heat which can create gall points and sores.

The only true method of cooling is by using a pad material that will wick. In today’s equine market the only two materials are wool or cotton. Wool is the winner here. It will absorb up to 3 times its weight in water, cotton will only absorb its initial weight, and wool has compression protection six times that of comparable thickness of cotton.

No official data really exists on the attributes of various materials on its abilities to cool.

Recently we took a trip to the Hell Roaring Wilderness area in Montana. As a part of the trip we wanted to obtain actual data about cooling with various types of pad materials. We purposely used a saddle that was extremely much too narrow in the front, knowing it would pinch and rock on the huge, flat backed draft, Quarter Horse cross horses and mules.

The trip into camp was 21 miles. Once at camp we did numerous day rides that amounted to 3-6 hours at a stretch.

In order to secure a range of data we took rest temperatures of each animal before starting each ride, while riding, cinched at rest (lunch break and fishing – one hour) after exertion and at end of day just before unsaddling.

Trip Data: Digital read out temperatures were taken at the tightest point of the shoulder and saddle. At rest the readings consistently ranged from 98.5-99 degrees. During exertion the felt pads stayed consistently at these same temperatures, but the F15 felt generally ran a degree higher than the F11. During exertion the neoprene, neoprene-felt pads, synthetic fleece and Tacky Tac used with a blanket were always 3 degrees hotter, and after one hour during lunch breaks these pads never cooled down. Finally, at the end of a day ride the temperatures initially established had not changed.

The pads represented materials from some of the major known manufactures that the outfitter had been experimenting with in an attempt to find pad material that would cool to prevent galling, have superior compression protection and longevity. Some of the pads he had been trying were Cowboy Choice-Closed Cell Foam/Felt, Wrangler 20x- Closed Cell Foam/Synthetic Top, Justin-Closed Cell Foam, Equibrand-Closed Cell Foam/Felt Top, Reinsman- Tacky Tac Bottom, Synthetic Top, Toklok-Needled Felt, Slone-F15, 5 Star- F11, Tacky Tac – Tacky Tac w/ Blanket Cover, and Coolback-Synthetic Fleece. This seems like a lot of brands, but one has to realize that on any given trip as many as 45 head of mules and horses can be saddled or packed. Plus this outfitter had been searching for years to find a pad that would assist in compression protection and cooling.

The findings were exactly as we suspected. Open and closed cell foams, layered felt foams; synthetic felts and fleeces did NOT cool and trapped heat. Temperatures were significantly higher. The felt pads were the only materials that kept consistently lower temperatures. In one case with one of the solid neoprene pads one horse’s back was so tender after use that it could not be used for two days.

The data speaks for itself and we only mention the name brands because out of these, Slone and 5 Star were his only wool felts. The rest of the pads were all neoprene or neoprene/felt combination pads (synthetic or F15 felt tops) and synthetic fleece.

Compression Protection

Compression protection with pad materials is easily measurable and is a direct function of tensile strength and rebound resistance in terms of pounds per square inch. The chart below represents data taken directly from the American Materials and Testing Institute, International Felting Standards, Automobile Testing Institute and material manufacturers.

Data:

Felt /Foam Grades Compression Rating (PSI) Tensile Strength (PSI)

F10 Felt 8.0 psi 225
F11 Felt 6.0 psi 200
F15 Felt 2.0 psi 75
Open Cell Foam 2.0 psi 75
Closed Cell Foam 2.0 psi 40
Synthetic Fleece 1.0 psi N/A

(Note: These are the foams and felts typically used for saddle pad materials.)

Gel Paks and Air Bladders measurements at “bottom out points” are generally 1.5-2.00 or less and because of the material flexibility it is hard to get accurate ratings. Tensile strength is not an issue because it is normally bonded or sandwiched with some other material(s).

Conclusion

Good ole common sense really needs to prevail with saddle padding. Remember – First if the “shoe don’t fit, the shoe still won’t fit with lots of socks.” If the saddle doesn’t fit, no padding in the world will solve the problem. In fact additional padding can in many cases shift the problem elsewhere or create additional cinching and soring. It also must be pointed out that with a good custom saddle, thinner padding can be the answer.

Over the long haul with or without good saddle fit, high quality wool felt materials are the best bet. If your intent is to only ride for 30-45 minutes and activity will be minimal; likely no harm will be done using foam, tacky or neoprene material, but can be very uncomfortable to the animal.

Bottom line is if you spend $5000 for a horse, $3000 for saddle and $60 for a pad something is not computing. If you wouldn’t wear the material on a hot or cold day WHY in the world do you think it would be good for them?

Points to Ponder

  • If the saddles don’t fit they can push pads out the back.
  • A saddle tree may be warped if it pushes pad out the back and to the side.
  • If you wouldn’t wear that stuff for underpants or socks why put it on the animal!
  • Synthetic pads have the highest profit margin for makers.
  • Sweat pouring off a back is like you standing on ice with tennis shoes on a hill!
  • Do you like having bandages pulled off your hairy arms? So how do you think tacky material feels to an animal?
  • Wool felt pads are easily cleaned!
  • Synthetic fleeced saddle skirting is slick and will present problems with most pads.
  • Don’t be fooled by Patent Pending in advertising.
  • Synthetic foams are not UV light resistant and break down,
  • Synthetic foams break down from heat and salts of the animal.
  • Fire or strong acids are the only thing that will harm wool.
  • All pads will contract and spread disease when not cleaned if infection exists.
  • Pinch pads with thumb and fingers. If you can feel the other digit it likely has bad compression protection.
  • Buy for function first, then looks.
  • Don’t be fooled by gimmick terms and pictures.
  • Ask construction specifications of retailer and manufacturer.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.

by Cynthia Cooper | naturalhorseworld.com

Over the past few years, awareness about saddle fit has increased dramatically as we look to get better performance from our horses, especially in the field of endurance. In any sport where long hours with a saddle and rider on board, a horse’s back, movement, expression and willingness will tell you the truth about your saddle fit.

Today there are a many new saddle designs that are catering for the increased size and broadness of the horses we are breeding now. There are a variety of flexible trees, treeless saddles, adjustable gullets and air panel systems that all help to achieve a good fit on most horses, mules and donkey’s.

So what do you look for with saddle fit?

Firstly, notice what your horse does when you approach with the saddle – is he/she trying to move away, pinning their ears, head tossing or even trying to nip you as you put the saddle on or girth it up? If so, they are probably trying to tell you that something is very uncomfortable for them.

Put the saddle on with a thin pad and girth it up to where you can get on so you will be able to see how it sits on your horse’s back.

Using a thick pad can be useful when your horse’s condition is lighter but shouldn’t be used to compensate for an ill-fitting saddle. It would be like putting thick socks on with shoes that are already too tight.

Saddle pads were originally designed to keep the underside of the saddle clean, but have now become a complicated choice and is a topic needing its own article.

Looking at the saddle from beside the horse – does it sit evenly? If it’s too high at the front then it’s probably too narrow and will tend to roll from side to side or slip when you mount no matter how tight the girth. If it sits up at the back, it may be too wide in the gullet and be unstable when you rock it from front to back.

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It should also be easy to run your hand freely behind the shoulder. If you have trouble freely running your hand between the shoulder and the widest point of the gullet, then its probably too narrow for your horse.

Then view the saddle from the front – does it clear the wither by at least 4 fingers? Even treeless saddles should have good wither clearance.

Another issue with fit is the placement of the saddle. The design should allow the saddle to fit far enough back from the shoulder to reduce interference when the horse moves. If your saddle does not girth up in the horse’s natural girth channel, when positioned back far enough, than it is not the right one.

Some saddle designs have a Y shaped girthing system that allows for the adjustment of the girth positioning.
Now its time to ride your horse so take notice of issues such as high head carriage, reluctance to transition down gaits, reluctance to travel down hill easily, reluctance to stride out freely, a sour expression and raising the head suddenly (even squealing) when you dismount.

Ride until your horse has a good sweat under the cloth and this will tell you even more about fit.

When you remove the saddle, there should be no sign of dry patches. This idicates that the pressure on the muscle in this area is restricting blood and sweat flow that will lead to muscle damage and dead tissue, eventually growing white hair.

There are so many problems that develop from saddle fit that we can remove or reduce by being aware and listening to our horse. Many behavioural and even health issues start with physical discomfort so its up to us to become good detectives and do our research.

With so much information available today, we have no reason to be ignorant and compromise our horse’s enjoyment of being ridden.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.

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Remember, you should never tack up a horse unless you are ready to ride. Brush off any stable or sweat marks, as well as dried mud, especially where the saddle and girth will be. Put the saddle on first; some horses tend to expand their chest when the saddle is first put on, but will relax later, leaving the girth loose. By the time you have put on the bridle, the horse will have relaxed and you can then tighten the girth before you mount. Don’t leave a horse standing with its saddle on when you have finished riding. If it wants to roll, it will do so even with the saddle in place; this will not only damage the saddle, but can also hurt the horse’s back. Practice the following steps when putting the saddle on.

1) Approach the horse slowly, talking to it all the time. Smooth down the hair on the back, then lay the saddle pads over the withers and saddle area. Put the pad further forward than the final position of the saddle to allow you to move it and the saddle back together later, in the direction of the lie of the coat.

2) Check that the stirrups are run up, and that the girth is fastened on one side and folded over the saddle. Place the saddle on the pad, lowering it vertically so that you do not move the pad. Do not pull the saddle or pad forward because this will rub the horse’s hair the wrong way.

3) Hold the saddle pad well up in the arch and gullet of the saddle, then move the saddle and saddle pad backward together until the saddle sits in its correct position behind the withers. Attach the saddle pad to the saddle by threading the middle girth strap through the loop provided on the pad.

1/4" pad wool liner 30" x 30" straight, available at barnworld.com.

4) Walk around the front of the horse to the other side, going under the neck if necessary. Hang the girth down, and then check that everything is lying flat. Bring the girth down gently; do not throw it over from the other side.

5) Walk back around the horse and fasten the girth. Attach one buckle to the front strap. This strap is attached to the saddle separately so that if it breaks, the other one will hold the girth, and vice versa. Pull the girth tight without wrinkling the skin. You must use the same two straps on both sides of the saddle.

6) Pull the buckle guards down over the buckles of the girth. This stops the buckles from moving around or digging into your legs while you are riding, and prevents them from rubbing and damaging the saddle.

7) After you have checked and tightened the girth, pull each foreleg forward to make sure that no skin is wrinkled under the girth. If the horse reacts as you tighten the girth, it may be a bad habit but could also be because of a back problem or a painful saddle. The girth should lie in front of an imaginary vertical line drawn through the center of the saddle.

When you’re done riding, undo the girth on one side and cross it over the saddle to remove it. Take hold of both the saddle and the saddle pad and lift them off together, moving them slightly backward as you go.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.

horse.com

Saddles

Both the horse and the rider benefit from a saddle. A saddle prevents the horse’s spine from digging into the rider, and spreads the rider’s weight evenly across the horse’s back, avoiding the spine. Saddles are built around a frame called a tree. The tree should be protected by being stored on a rack; if the tree breaks, the saddle is useless and hurts the horse. It is important to purchase the best saddle you can afford. The best ones are made of leather or a high-quality synthetic; cheaper saddles will not last as long. If you purchase a saddle secondhand, make sure that the tree, stitching, and leather are in good repair.

There are different types of saddles for different purposes, such as jumping and dressage, or general-purpose saddles for non-specialist riders. Western saddles are ornate and decorative because they served as a cowboy’s status symbol. They are heavy because they were originally designed to withstand the stresses imposed when a lariat was attached to the horn in front of the rider.

Abetta Ostrich Classic Saddle. (Picture courtesy of www.barnworld.com)

Saddle pads are intended as a protective measure and for comfort. Rectangular saddle pads keep the underside of the saddle clean and absorb sweat, which would otherwise cause the saddle to slip, slide, and rub the horse. It can be made from a variety of materials, although some synthetic materials do not absorb moisture as well as others. Fitted pads are designed to protect the horse’s back as well as absorb sweat. It is usually cut in the shape of a saddle. They should not be used as a permanent padding for a poorly fitting or badly stuffed saddle; these ill-equipped saddles should be replaced or restuffed. Gel pads are made of thermoplastic elastomer gel that ensures an even contact between the horse and the saddle; they are ideal for a horse with a sore back. The gel distributes pressure so that it is applied evenly all over.

Girths

Leather girths are strong, durable, and do not stretch much; they do, however, collect sweat and dirt. This makes the girth hard and uncomfortable for the horse if not kept clean. There are several types and styles available. A nylon string girth lets air through, and grips better than leather, making it less likely to rub and cause sores.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.

horse.com

A single glance into any equine catalog will reveal a myriad of saddle pad choices. With different materials, different shapes and different claims to fame, it can be difficult to decide what one will best suit your saddle.

English self contouring workout pad, available at www.barnworld.com.

Each material has its benefits and drawbacks. Here is a short list of the attributes of the most popular saddle pads:

Fleece

One of the most common materials used today, fleece pads can be either double backed, or fleece bottomed, and may be synthetic or wool. Natural fleece provides more cushioning, but synthetic fleece is longer lasting and easier to care for.

Felt

The hallmark property of the felt equine saddle pad is the material’s ability to draw sweat from the horse, which allows heat to dissipate. It is also a great shock absorber, and helps to relieve minor pressure points.

Neoprene

Waterproof and easy to clean, Neoprene pads usually feature a waffle-weave bottom which promotes airflow and breathability. They also provide good cushioning and reduce saddle slippage.

Foam

Foam distributes weight and absorbs shock. Additionally, it also molds to the horse’s back, creating customized comfort. They do not have any wicking abilities.

Gel

With features of both a solid and a liquid, gel will disburse impacts and will always return to its original shape. Heavier in weight and more expensive than foam, they are a good choice for riders who work multiple horses, since they do not conform to the back.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.

horse.com

Although horses do not speak English, they are certainly able to communicate with us, especially regarding poor saddle pad fitment. If a horse is experiencing pain caused by a poor fitting or defective saddle pads, there can be physical signs that may occur, such as:

o Sores under the saddle area

o White hairs under the saddle area (which can also indicate past damage done by a saddle)

o Friction rubs in the hair

o Scars or hard spots

o Dry patches on the back or saddle pad while the rest is dampened by sweat

o Dropping of the back when it is palpated

o Muscle atrophy on either side of the withers

Even if there are no physical signs, if your horse is behaving differently, it is wise to evaluate the horse saddle pad fitment as part of any exam. Behavioral signs of poor saddle fit can include:

o Hypersensitivity while being brushed

o Objecting to being saddled or cinched

o Fidgeting while mounting

o Uncooperative while being ridden

o Pinning ears, swishing tail and/or tossing head under saddle

o Reluctance to go forward and use the hind end

So, before you write your horse off as stubborn, uncooperative or ill tempered, first take a good look at his equipment.

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.

nationalhogfarmer.com
06/27/2011

Summer months can trigger heat stress in livestock, especially in pigs, according to Mark Whitney, a swine specialist with the University of Minnesota Extension. Pigs are especially challenged because they lack functional sweat glands to help them efficiently reduce body heat.

Even though the majority of pigs today are raised in modern confinement facilities that provide some climate control, producers still face limits in their ability to cool pigs during extreme heat, he says.

Pigs naturally remove body heat during periods of heat stress through a combination of accelerated respiration, decreased feed intake, increased water consumption and adjustments in physical activity and movement.

Pork producers can minimize heat stress for their pigs by:

  1. Preparing and maintaining cooling systems. Check cooling systems and ensure that thermostats, fans, air inlets, drip coolers, sprinklers, cooling cells and other related equipment are set for summer usage. Use of sprinklers, along with fans, can reduce the temperature in barns provided sprinklers are set correctly. Avoid sprinklers that provide a very fine mist because they will increase humidity levels in the barn. Cooling cells work more effectively to lower humidity levels. Adjust ventilation systems to remove excess moisture from buildings.
  2. Adjusting the feeding program. Since pigs will lower their feed intake during periods of high temperatures, increase the nutritional density of the diet for growing pigs and lactating sows. Adding fat to the hog feeder will also increase the caloric density, but if other nutrient levels are not also increased accordingly, animal performance will still suffer, Whitney says.
  3. Modifying procedures during load-out and transportation of pigs. Transportation is perhaps the most stressful time for pigs during periods of heat. Remove feed from pigs for 12-18 hours before shipment (remove feed but not water). Load fewer pigs in order to allow maximum air movement. Keep vehicles in constant motion and open all vents and slats. Avoid moving pigs during the heat of the day, and allow more time to load pigs. Pigs are apt to become fatigued during hot weather. Additional time and patience are needed to effectively load pigs, while reducing pig and handler stress.

For more educational information, visit extension.umn.edu

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To get more information on cattle scales, cattle guards, or saddle pads, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on grain weight conversion, hog feeders, and hay feeders, please visit Barn World.

To get more information on bulk feed bins, livestock scales, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit Barn World.