Archive for May 2012

by Robert R Norris |

During the neolithic age, homo sapiens, man, started to see the use of other animals for his own welfare besides hunting. He started utilizing animals for his day to day use. He started training and domesticating animals like cows, goat, buffalos, horses, dogs and so on and so forth for meeting up his daily requirements. Gradually, the increase in human population leads to its dependence on the livestock and also to their breeding.

Digital livestock has been a wealth that the human race has valued from time immemorial. In ancient times people were valued by the amount of digital livestock that they had and not on the scale of money that they acquired. Though with time many things have changed but the value of livestock have continued. Some communities in Africa like the Wasabi tribe still value livestock more than anything else in the world. Hindus worship Cow as a divine incarnation and so on and so forth. In the West, the major usage of the livestock is for dairy and its by-product.

In earlier times, one of the major problems in the upkeep of digital livestock was their hygiene and a lack of proper know how in the way of scientific breeding of them. Various inventions have been made in this front and one significant development has been the invention of the livestock scale.

Digital livestock scale is a commonly used instrument to weigh animals and livestock. It can also be used in industries to measure heavy items.

PS1000 floor scale with digital indicator. To order yours or see our complete gallery of cattle scales, please visit our website:

A digital livestock scale is widely used in farms, ranches, god owns and meat processing industries all over the world. The scale can be used to weigh things other than digital livestock as well like milk cans, drums, farm produce, pets, parcels, couriers and anything that is required to be weighed an time as a person wants.

Commonly available digital livestock scales are made up of steel and has a rubber mat, so it’s durable, long lasting and easy to clean. Now they are available with digital meters, which give accurate readings. Some have adjustable wheels to provide an even surface during weighing and can be easily moved to a desired location. Varieties of livestock scales are available as per requirements which can measure weights ranging from 500 Lb to 5000 Lb. That is all the reasons that these scales of different companies become very popular among the people of digital live stock field in international market over the world.


For more information about cattle guards, cattle scales, and saddle pads, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about hog feeders, grain weight conversion, and hay feeders, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about livestock scales, bulk feed bins, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit our Barn World informational site.

by Claude Villeneuve |

The main problem with feeding hay outside to horses is that they like to spread hay around, use it as bedding and spoil it. And as you know for sure is a big waste of hay especially if you paid for quality hay. And to make things worse, all that spoiled wasted and compacted hay has to be cleaned up around the feeder or feeding area. Also, spoilage and waste from all weather conditions has to be considered in designing horse hay feeders.

Of course a solution to this problem, would be to feed only the quantity of hay that your horses are hungry for at the time of feeding, so they eat it all and not waste any. But it also implies you being around when needed, nice weather or not. Since most people want more and more leisure time, there is a need for a feeding method where the hay could stay inside the feeder when not in need, and stay protected from rain, snow and sun. This way one could go from feeding a few times a day to a few times a week.

While an efficient hay feeder would cut down on expenses for one who buys hay, it would sure cut down on work for those who produce their own hay. Most users estimate that a minimum of 30% and up to 40% of hay can be wasted both by the horses and weather conditions.

Other problems such as wounding of horses caused by the feeder and a better social behaviour at the feeder should also be taken into consideration.

Fortunately, such a horse hay feeder exists. It keeps the hay inside the feeder protected from weather. It is completely safe as far as wounding animals and it greatly ameliorates social behaviour around the feeder. Overall this hay feeder will save a considerable amount of time, work, hay and money.

Please go to:{6E9C0CDD-10E0-49D8-BA54-A7E5FD605F11}.


For more information about cattle guards, cattle scales, and saddle pads, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about hog feeders, grain weight conversion, and hay feeders, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about livestock scales, bulk feed bins, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit our Barn World informational site.

Ask twenty equine enthusiasts what you should feed your horse, and you are likely to hear twenty different answers. Advice will probably include a number of things that you absolutely must do, as well as an equal number of practices to avoid at all costs. What makes this question so complicated? Possibly the confusion results from the fact that virtually every type of grain has positive and negative qualities. When this fact is combined with the vast body of “old-timer” wisdom, advertising hype, and well-meaning advice encountered by the average horse owner, it is not difficult to see why simple answers seem so elusive. An examination of the pros and cons of various feed ingredients may be the best place to start.

OATS ARE GOOD. This traditional horse feed is palatable and easy to chew. Oats are less susceptible to mold than corn or wheat. Unprocessed oats retain their quality when properly stored. They are considered a “safe” grain because starch from processed or unprocessed oats is readily digested in the small intestine.

OATS ARE BAD. Because they do not offer all the nutrients necessary for growth and maintenance of body tissues, oats cannot be considered a complete feed. When an extra can of oats is mixed with a scoop of a fortified feed, nutrient balance is compromised. Oats contain a high proportion of indigestible fiber (up to 35% by weight). Processed oats have a very short shelf life.

CORN IS GOOD. Corn is also a traditional feed for equines, and most horses like the taste. Corn is high in starch (70%).

CORN IS BAD. Corn is low in protein, with a lysine level of only about 0.25%. Fed at high levels, corn may not be completely digested in the small intestine, and undigested starch passing to the large intestine can trigger colic or laminitis. Corn that is harvested or stored at high moisture levels may harbor mold, especially on broken or damaged kernels.

BARLEY IS GOOD. Barley provides high energy, moderate protein, and low fiber. In regions where barley is grown it is sometimes substituted for corn in horse rations. Crude protein from barley is digested more easily than corn protein. Net energy available from barley is higher than oats.

BARLEY IS BAD. Barley starch has somewhat low digestibility in the small intestine. Rolling improves this factor, and feeding micronized barley results in the least undigested starch reaching the large intestine. This grain is somewhat low in lysine and methionine. Improper storage can lower the quality of barley due to growth of to fungus or mold.

MOLASSES IS GOOD. Molasses holds top-dressed supplements and fine particles, and its excellent palatability encourages picky eaters.

MOLASSES IS BAD. Its high sugar content may trigger a high glycemic response followed by a slump in energy.

SWEET FEED IS GOOD. Sweet feed is palatable to most horses. The molasses in sweet feed discourages “sorting” of ingredients and top-dressed supplements. It may be somewhat easier to detect moldy or rancid sweet feed because of changes in appearance, smell, and texture, whereas these changes are not as evident in pelleted feeds.

SWEET FEED IS BAD. Its sticky texture can cause bridging or clumping in feed mill containers or storage bins. Mold can grow in sweet feed that sticks to the side of the container, contaminating fresh feed. Bulk feed bins and storage units should be emptied and cleaned regularly, especially in hot weather.

7 ft x 2 row basic bulk feeder bin with 16" collar for poly hopper and with ground control cap opener. To see our complete line of bulk feed bins visit our Website,

PELLETS ARE GOOD. Because every pellet contains all ingredients in the mix, pelleting is a way to guarantee that the horse cannot pick through the feed and eat only the most appetizing morsels. Heat during processing slightly increases digestibility of ingredients. Pelleted feeds are usually not subject to clumping in production lines or storage units. Containers and feed tubs stay cleaner and are less attractive to flies and rodents. While the comment “You can’t ever tell what’s in pellets” is still heard on occasion, the tag provides an ingredient list and a guaranteed analysis, giving an assurance that quality ingredients have been used to make the feed.

PELLETS ARE BAD. Top-dressed supplements and additives tend to sift through pellets and be left in the bottom of the feed tub. Fine particles may aggravate allergies in susceptible horses, and an extremely high level of fines means less useable feed per bag or batch. Getting the mix too hot or keeping it at a high temperature too long during processing can compromise vitamin content and protein digestibility.

FAT IS GOOD. Measured by volume, fat contributes more energy than grains. There is less chance of founder or colic than with feeds providing energy from starch. Fat delivers “cool” energy and is a good fuel for endurance exercise.

FAT IS BAD. It is not a complete feed and should make up no more than about 20% of the horse’s diet. In large quantities, fat can cause diarrhea. Some types of animal fat decrease feed palatability.

It’s clear that there are good and bad features of almost anything that can be fed to a horse, but owners don’t need to worry about sorting through all the confusion. Equine nutritionists have taken most of the guesswork out of feeding and have provided carefully formulated products to complement forage in almost any nutrition program. A simple answer to the feeding dilemma does exist:

  • Base a feeding program on high-quality forage (grass or hay).
  • Provide energy and necessary nutrients by using a fortified grain product chosen on the basis of the horse’s age, use, size, and body type. KER has formulated feeds to meet the needs of horses in all riding disciplines and stages of life.
  • Adjust the feeding program as dictated by changes in body weight, performance demands, or reproductive status.


For more information about cattle guards, cattle scales, and saddle pads, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about hog feeders, grain weight conversion, and hay feeders, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about livestock scales, bulk feed bins, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit our Barn World informational site.

Hay is a good and, usually, an inexpensive source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for the horse. The mature horse will consume at least 2% of its body weight in dry matter daily. In nature, almost all of the mature horse’s nutrient requirements can be met by roughage in the form of hay. Regardless of the package type, e.g., small squares, round bales, etc., the most important considerations when buying hay are:

  • The quality of the hay, e.g., dust free (from molds), a crude protein content of 12-14% on a dry matter basis, a calcium to phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) of approximately 2:1 for growing horses (mature horses Ca:P ratio < 5:1).
  • Freedom from noxious weeds (e.g., bracken fern, horsetail) and plants that horses won’t eat (e.g., Bird’s-foot trefoil).
  • The price per pound or kilogram.
  • The package size. Can you physically handle small square bales ranging in weight from 35-60 lbs. or round bales and round bale silage ranging from 500 to 1600 lbs.?
  • Do you have the equipment that can handle large bales in winter with the additional problems created by snow?

When feeding a group of horses, hay costs become considerable and alternative package sizes, such as large round bales, may be especially useful and cost effective when combined with the appropriate feeders. For example, when feeding a group of six adult horses, the use of 4′ x 5′ soft-core round bales can result in savings over the use of traditional square bales. The cost savings come from: reduced labour, both during the initial haying season and during the feeding period; reduced storage costs (large bale storage is often cheaper than storage for small bales); and reduced costs of the actual dry matter on a cents-per-pound basis.

Let us see how tangible these savings really are by calculating the roughage costs for feeding a group of six horses:

  • An 1100-lb. horse consuming 2% of its body weight will consume 22 lbs. of dry matter or roughly 24 lbs. of hay on an as-fed basis (1100-lb. horse x 2% body weight = 22 lbs. of hay/horse/day on a dry matter basis. Hay is roughly 90% dry matter. Therefore, another 10% should be added, resulting in approximately 24.4 lbs. of hay being consumed per horse per day on an as-fed weight basis).
  • Six horses will consume approximately 6 x 24.4 or 146.4 lbs. of hay per day.
  • When hay is priced at $0.05/lb. (on an as-fed basis), a 4′ x 5′ mixed hay round bale providing 565 lbs. of hay (see Table 1) costs approximately $28. This bale should last approximately 4 days, baring any losses and would cost $7.00 per day to feed six horses.
  • To feed the same group of six horses, 3 square bales per day (weighing 48 lbs. per bale) would be required. At a cost of $2.50 per bale, the cost would be $7.50 per day.

Use local costs to calculate this comparison for your area. In many areas, and depending on the harvest year, the cost of hay in round bales on a cents/lb. basis is often significantly less than that sold in small square bales. At these times, feeding round bales can be more cost effective. However, when the cost of hay on a per pound basis is the same regardless of package type and size (round versus small), the economic advantage of using round bales will be based primarily on labor saving.

These savings can easily be diminished if losses from controllable factors, such as storage and the use of feeders, are not implemented. In fact, round-bale feeding can be more expensive than the feeding of small square bales. Storage of large round bales outside, exposed to the elements, results in dry-matter losses of 15-20% more than hay stored inside. Hay loss is attributed to outer-layer losses from weathering and to pulling of ground moisture into the base of the bale by wick action. To understand this loss all one has to do is to visualize spoilage of the mere outer 3″ of a 4′-diameter bale. This will result in a 25% loss of suitable feed. In addition, improperly stored hay is often dusty and can cause health concerns in horses.

To prevent spoilage losses, round bales can be stored inside a barn or outside covered with black plastic or bale tarps; in either case, they must be raised off the ground. This will prevent both spoilage and loss of nutrients. The absorption of ground moisture can easily double the amount of outer-layer losses. The use of rails, poles or pallets will minimize spoilage from ground moisture.

Table 1: How Much Hay is in a Round Bale? (prepared by Daniel Tasse, OMAF) Estimates of the weights based on a soft-core baler (add 20% for a hard core)

Feeding hay on the ground can account for a further 25% loss, from leaf loss as well as spoilage due to contamination (i.e. urine and manure) and trampling by horses. Therefore, it is advised to use hay feeders such as a “V” feeder with a tray to catch the leaves (Figure 1) or a round-bale feeder (Figure 2).

The proper storage and use of round bales can account for a 50% saving, which translates into half the number of bales needed. Table 2 gives a cost comparison for various storage and feeding methods.

Table 2: A Cost Comparison of Various Feeding Methods.

The theoretical calculations are based on:

  • A 220-day winter feeding period for 6 horses requiring 32,208 lbs. of hay with no dry matter losses.
  • The required nutrients could be supplied, if there were no feeding or storage losses, either as 57 – 4′ x 5′, 565-lb. round bales (cost of $28 each) or as 671 48-lb. square bales (cost of $2.50 each).
  • Losses, as indicated above, will require an increase in hay and added costs.
  • *The calculations indicate that 57 bales are required but 50% of the dry matter would be lost resulting in 28.5 additional bales being required but 50% of the 28.5 would also be lost for a total requirement of 99.75.

Take Home Message

  • Purchase hay on a cents-per-pound basis.
  • Round bale feeders are labor saving but can be dusty and costly if storage and feeding damage/losses are not minimized.
  • The feeding of horses starts with buying good hay, storing it properly and feeding to minimize leaf losses.
  • The cost of feeders and suitable storage protection can easily be recouped over a couple of winters, even when hay prices are relatively low.


For more information about cattle guards, cattle scales, and saddle pads, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about hog feeders, grain weight conversion, and hay feeders, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about livestock scales, bulk feed bins, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit our Barn World informational site.

How Fruit Size Effects Amount Needed To Fill the Bin

Perhaps the most common thought in the minds of picking crews after they have gone through a well-managed block of apples could be “larger apples fill bins much quicker than average size fruit.”

This idea is easily substantiated. Table 1 gives you some idea of relative fruit size and numbers needed to fill the bin. It takes 2000 apples of 3 1/8 inch diameter (100 count size) to fill a bin.

To fill the same bin with 2 ¾-inch diameter (138-count size) fruit, you have to reach for and handle 2760 apples per bin. Although a 2 ¾-inch apple isn’t a bad size, time and costs increase when smaller fruit is handled.

Table 1. Number of Apples to Fill Bins (Based on 20 bu/bin and 42 lb/bu)

Worksheet Example:

1000 trees/acre x 30 apples/tree = 30, 000 apples/acre = 30, 000 apples
There are 2000 apples per bin of 100 count size.

number of apples ÷ number per bin = 30,000 ÷ 2,000 = 15 bins

Tree Density Factor Chart

Fruit Size Factor Chart

Example: Grower has a density of 600 trees/acre and has 40 apples of avg. 125-count size/tree.

The grower needs:
Bins needed = 40(apples/tree) x 0.3(tree density factor) x 0.8(fruit size factor) = 9.6 or 10 bins

Three Factors That Make Up Crop Volume

Three factors make up crop volume: tree numbers, fruit numbers, and fruit size. If fruit size and crop load is fairly uniform in a higher-density planting, you can easily estimate yield. For example, if you have a tree density of 1000 trees/acre, and each tree carries 30 apples of 100-count size; you would need about 15 bins to accommodate the yield from one acre.

At 1000 trees/acre, the bin requirement is equal to half the number of apples per tree if the fruit is 100 count size.

At 500 trees/acre, the number of bins you would need equals one quarter the number of apples per tree. For sizes less than 100 count size (1x), you would multiply by a fruit factor which accounts for a 10% volume reduction for every 1/8-inch loss of size.

The Importance of Thinning for a Standard Distribution

Fruit size in a well-thinned crop generally follows a standard distribution. Most of the crop will be of the desired size classes while a smaller percentage of fruit will be much larger or much smaller than the bulk of the fruit making up the crop.

Bins/acre = apples/tree x tree density factor x fruit size factor


For more information about cattle guards, cattle scales, and saddle pads, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about hog feeders, grain weight conversion, and hay feeders, please visit our Barn World informational site.

For more information about livestock scales, bulk feed bins, and radiant under-floor heating, please visit our Barn World informational site.